This project is generously supported by the National Science Foundation (SMA-1539228), the National Institute on Aging (R21 AG056912), and the University of California, Los Angeles. Supplemental funding from the National Institute on Aging (R01 AG057704) allowed us to add cause of death for records in Ohio. 

Pilot work on this project was generously supported by the University of Michigan’s Department of Economics Michigan Institute for Teaching and Research in Economics (MITRE) grant, the University of Michigan’s Population Studies Center Small Grant (R24 HD041028), and the Michigan Center for the Demography of Aging (MiCDA) grant (P30 AG012846-21). We gratefully acknowledge the use of the services and facilities of the Population Studies Center at the University of Michigan (R24 HD041028 and P2C HD041028) and the California Center for Population Research at UCLA (P2C HD041022).